International Agreements For Shark Conservation: Are They Necessary?

9 min read

Sharks, as a vital part of the world’s oceans, have become a topic of growing concern in recent years. Fierce predators that have roamed the seas for millions of years, sharks play a crucial role in maintaining the delicate balance of marine ecosystems. However, the rise of overfishing, destructive fishing practices, and habitat degradation has pushed many shark species to the brink of extinction. In light of these threats, the question arises: should there be international agreements for shark conservation?

The urgent need for international cooperation in shark conservation cannot be understated. Sharks are highly migratory species that traverse vast distances, often crossing multiple jurisdictions and marine boundaries. This makes it challenging for any single nation to effectively protect and manage shark populations on its own. By establishing international agreements for shark conservation, nations can work together to harmonize their efforts, share scientific knowledge and best practices, and implement coordinated conservation measures that transcend national borders. Such agreements would foster a unified global approach to shark conservation and ensure that these magnificent predators have a fighting chance at survival in our increasingly human-dominated world.

Shark Population Decline

The decline in shark populations worldwide can be attributed to various factors. Overfishing is one of the leading causes, as sharks are often caught indiscriminately as bycatch or specifically targeted for their fins, which are used in certain cultural cuisines and for shark fin soup. This unsustainable fishing practice has significantly impacted shark populations, as they are slow to reproduce and have low birth rates.

Another contributing factor is the degradation and destruction of their habitats, particularly coral reefs and coastal areas which serve as essential nurseries for many shark species. Pollution, including the release of chemicals and plastics into the oceans, further exacerbates this problem. Climate change is also a significant concern, as it affects the availability of prey and alters oceanic ecosystems, ultimately impacting shark populations.

The decline in shark numbers has cascading effects on marine ecosystems, as sharks play a crucial role in maintaining balance and biodiversity. As apex predators, they regulate prey populations and prevent their overabundance, promoting healthy ecosystems. The loss of sharks can lead to disruptions in food chains and an imbalance in marine life.

Given the global nature of shark populations, international agreements for shark conservation are vital. Such agreements can establish standardized regulations for fishing practices, including the banning of shark finning and the implementation of sustainable fishing methods. They can also facilitate the establishment and enforcement of marine protected areas to preserve critical habitats for sharks. Cooperation between nations is essential to effectively conserve and rebuild shark populations, ensuring the ecological stability and sustainability of our oceans.


Image from Pexels, photographed by ArtHouse Studio.

Illegal Shark Finning

Illegal shark finning is a highly concerning practice in the context of shark conservation. It involves the removal of sharks’ fins, often while they are still alive, and discarding the rest of their bodies back into the ocean. The fins are mainly used to make shark fin soup, a delicacy in certain cultures. This practice is a critical issue because it leads to a myriad of environmental and ecological problems.

Firstly, illegal shark finning contributes to the rapid decline of shark populations worldwide. Removing sharks from their natural habitats disrupts the delicate balance of marine ecosystems and affects the overall biodiversity. Sharks play a crucial role in the food chain, and their absence can cause cascading effects throughout the marine ecosystem, impacting other species and ecosystem functions.

Secondly, illegal shark finning is often associated with unsustainable fishing practices. Many sharks reproduce slowly and have a low reproductive capacity, making them especially vulnerable to overfishing. When sharks are targeted specifically for their fins, it disregards the importance of their entire bodies and the potential for sustainable fishing practices that would enable their populations to recover.

Thirdly, the process of shark finning itself is cruel and inhumane. After their fins are removed, the sharks are typically thrown back into the water, still alive but unable to swim effectively or survive. This process is not only morally reprehensible but also goes against the principle of sustainable and ethical fishing practices.

Habitat Destruction

Habitat destruction refers to the degradation or elimination of a natural environment, making it unsuitable for the species that typically inhabit it. In the case of sharks, habitat destruction is a significant concern that can have profound consequences for their survival. The destruction of shark habitats is primarily driven by human activities such as coastal development, pollution, fishing, and climate change.

Coastal development, including the construction of ports, marinas, and resorts, often results in the destruction or alteration of crucial shark habitats like coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds. These habitats serve as essential breeding and nursery grounds for many shark species, and their destruction can disrupt the reproductive cycles and population dynamics of these creatures.

Pollution, particularly from industrial and agricultural sources, can also have detrimental effects on shark habitats. Chemical pollutants can contaminate water bodies, leading to a decrease in water quality and impacting the health and abundance of prey species that sharks rely on. Additionally, high levels of sedimentation caused by deforestation or poor land management practices can smother coral reefs and other vital habitats, rendering them unsuitable for sharks.

Fishing practices, particularly destructive methods like bottom trawling and use of longlines, can directly damage shark habitats by destroying coral reefs and other sensitive ecosystems. Bycatch, the unintentional capture of non-target species, including sharks, also contributes to habitat destruction as it can disrupt the delicate balance within marine ecosystems.

The impacts of climate change, such as rising water temperatures and ocean acidification, further exacerbate habitat destruction for sharks. Coral bleaching events, caused by warmer waters, can lead to the death of entire coral reef ecosystems, which are not only home to a vast array of marine life but also serve as important feeding grounds for many shark species.

Overfishing Of Sharks

The overfishing of sharks is a pressing issue that calls for attention and global cooperation. Sharks play a critical role in marine ecosystems, and their depletion can have far-reaching consequences. Overfishing occurs when the rate of catch exceeds the species’ ability to reproduce, leading to population decline. This overexploitation of sharks is primarily driven by the demand for their fins, which are used in the production of shark fin soup, a traditional delicacy in some cultures.


Image from Pexels, photographed by 7inchs.

The high demand for shark fins has led to a practice known as shark finning, where sharks are caught, their fins are sliced off, and the remaining body is discarded back into the ocean. This wasteful and unsustainable practice further exacerbates the decline of shark populations. It is estimated that millions of sharks are killed each year for their fins, leading to a significant decline in shark populations worldwide.

The issue of overfishing of sharks has global implications, as sharks are migratory species that traverse across different countries’ waters. Therefore, the establishment of international agreements for shark conservation becomes crucial in order to address this issue effectively. These agreements can help promote sustainable fishing practices, regulate the trade and consumption of shark products, and encourage the conservation of shark habitats.

By having international agreements for shark conservation, countries can work together to implement measures such as fishing quotas, protected areas, and stricter regulation of shark finning practices. This collaborative approach can enable the recovery and preservation of shark populations, ensuring the viability of these magnificent creatures and the integrity of marine ecosystems.

Bycatch Of Sharks

The bycatch of sharks refers to the accidental capture of sharks in fishing gear intended for other species. This is a significant problem that affects shark populations worldwide. Sharks are often caught incidentally in nets and longlines set for target species such as tuna, swordfish, and other commercial fish. Due to their large size, strong swimming ability, and predatory nature, sharks are particularly vulnerable to becoming bycatch.

The issue of bycatch of sharks has become a cause for concern because it leads to the unnecessary mortality of these important marine predators. It is estimated that millions of sharks are caught unintentionally each year, with a significant number of them dying as a result. This indiscriminate capture of sharks has detrimental effects on their populations, as many species of sharks are already facing heightened conservation threats due to overfishing and habitat degradation.


Image from Pexels, photographed by Maahid Mohamed.

The bycatch of sharks not only affects shark populations but also has broader ecological implications. Sharks play crucial roles in marine ecosystems as apex predators, helping to regulate the balance of marine food webs. Their decline can have cascading effects on the entire ecosystem, leading to imbalances and potentially impacting other commercially valuable fish species.

In the context of international agreements for shark conservation, addressing the issue of bycatch is of utmost importance. Effective regulations and cooperation between nations are necessary to reduce the unintentional capture and mortality of sharks. This can include implementing stricter fishing gear regulations, promoting the use of shark-friendly fishing practices, and establishing marine protected areas where sharks are given adequate protection from fishing pressures.


In conclusion, the question of whether there should be international agreements for shark conservation is a complex one. On one hand, sharks play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of marine ecosystems, and their decline can have cascading effects on other species. Therefore, it is imperative to have international cooperation and agreements to protect these vulnerable creatures. Such agreements can facilitate the implementation of strict regulations and fishing limits, as well as the creation of protected areas and sanctuaries, which can go a long way in conserving shark populations.

On the other hand, international agreements often face challenges in terms of enforcement and compliance. Different countries may have varying levels of commitment to shark conservation, and some may not prioritize it at all. Furthermore, the effectiveness of agreements can be hindered by political and economic factors. It is crucial for international organizations and governments to work together to address these challenges and ensure that the agreements are robust, transparent, and backed by strong monitoring and enforcement mechanisms.

In conclusion, while international agreements for shark conservation are necessary, they must be coupled with effective enforcement and continuous monitoring to truly safeguard these magnificent creatures and preserve the integrity of our oceans. Restoring and maintaining healthy shark populations is not only vital for the conservation of biodiversity but also for the long-term sustainability of our marine ecosystems.

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